More than 1000 years before the first records of the compass in Europe and near 2300 years before satellite navigation and GPS invention, Pytheas the Greek managed to travel from the Mediterranean to the Arctic Circle. It is no coincidence that he was a leading astronomer of the time.
More recently the Vikings also in the North Atlantic and the navigators of the Pacific, in Micronesia and Polynesia, have proved that there is a lot more nautical navigation than it seems.
Expert natural navigators at sea learn to read the motion of the water on the way a land navigator would read a map. Above all every ripple, wave and swell contains detailed information. They are about what the wind is doing, what it has been doing and so, what direction a sailor is heading.
Natural history is a valuable aid in working out direction and the proximity of land. The annual and daily patterns of bird flight, combined with the habits of marine life are examples. For instance whales and also dolphins offer valuable help to those who look for these clues, too.
Just take a look at the following pictures: [image: image.png]